Wednesday, 5 August 2020

The Experience with the Use of Nandrolone Decanoate and Pyritinol in Children with Cerebral Palsy by Aamir Jalal Al-Mosawi in Biogeneric Science and Research


Abstract

        Background: Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous disorder resulting from a non-progressive damage to the developing brain that cause mostly a variable degree of chronic motor disability and developmental abnormalities during early childhood including delayed speech and motor development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the condition and variable severity and presentations, patients are generally treated with an individualized treatment plans that provides a combination of interventions including treatment of spasticity with muscle relaxants and physical therapy. Patients with severe condition can have significant disability, while patients with less severe disorder experience delay in motor developments and learning difficulties. The aim of this paper is to describe retrospectively our experience with use of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and pyritinol in children with a less severe form of cerebral palsy with aim of improving motor functions and learning abilities.

        Patients and Methods: Five patients (3 males and 2 girls) with cerebral palsy presenting mainly with spasticity, hyperreflexia and delayed speech and motor development. The patients were treated with intermittent low dose intra-muscular (i.m) injections of ND (12.5 mg for children under 2 years, 25 mg for the older child) with the aim of improving their delayed motor development. Pyritinol was used in the one patient in addition to ND with aim of improving his learning abilities. Estimation of the bone age was made using radiographs of the left wrist before the injection and 2 weeks after each injection. The patient was monitored weekly for the development of hypertension and sign of virilization. All the patients had normal or delayed bone age before treatment.

        Results: The use of nandrolone decanoate intramuscular injections and pyritinol was associated with dramatic effect on the motor development and learning abilities respectively without the occurrence of any adverse effects. Mild advancement of bone age was noticed only in one patient.

        Conclusion: nandrolone decanoate and pyritinol can be useful in the management of cerebral palsy.

Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Development, Nandrolone, Pyritinol.

Introduction

Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous disorder resulting from a non-progressive damage to the developing brain that cause mostly a variable degree of chronic motor disability and developmental abnormalities during early childhood including delayed speech and motor development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the condition and variable severity and presentations, patients are generally treated with an individualized treatment plans that provides a combination of interventions including treatment of spasticity with muscle relaxants and physical therapy. Patients with severe condition can have significant disability, while patients with less severe disorder experience delay in motor developments and learning difficulties [1-3]. The aim of this paper is to describe retrospectively our experience with use of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and pyritinol in children with a less severe form of cerebral palsy with aim of improving motor functions and learning abilities.


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Monday, 27 July 2020

Proportional Asist Ventilation (PAV) by Ugur Koca in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science and Research



Short Communication
The inspiratory muscle effort and the ventilatory results of this effort cause the patient to not be able to provide adequate ventilation to meet the metabolic need, and as a result, a form of ventilatory insufficiency called “poor neuroventilatory coupling” occurs [1]. PAV is a synchronous partial ventilatory support mode that amplifies spontaneous inspiratory effort in proportion to the patient's spontaneous effort (the greater the patient's effort, the higher the flow, volume, and pressure) without preset target pressure and volume in patients with respiratory effort. According to the concept of “Patient ventilator interactions (PVI)”; The trigger function is determined by the patient's ventilatory effort, flow distribution function, spontaneous inspiratory flow requirement, from inspiratory to expiratory function, spontaneous neural inspiratory time [2,3]. There should be an interface for continuous communication between physiological parameters and ventilatory support to detect physiological PVI. This can only be achieved with a closed loop circuit.

 Keywords: Ventilation; Volume; Pressure


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Friday, 24 July 2020

Application of Crispr-Cas 9 in Food and Agriculture Science: A Narrative Review by Paroma Arefin in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science and Research


Abstract

Genetic diversity is the foundation for introducing plant development programs. Scientists and breeders used various methods, ranging from modern crossing to classical biotechnologies, to address the restricted incidence of natural mutations. Incomplete gene disruption or spontaneous injection of transgenes into plant genomes also occurs in earlier generations of knockout and gain-offunction technologies. Recent advances in genetic engineering has brought numerous benefits to the food and agriculture sector by improving the essential features of agricultural features. The CRISPR / Cas9 technology emerges from a bacterial immune system of type II and represents a new age of selective genome editing technology that can be spread to almost all species. In this paper, we have focused on advancements in the utilization of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in the food and agricultural industry, particularly in the development of resistant crops with improved quality and productivity.

Keywords: CRISPR / Cas9 technology; Application in food and agriculture; Gene editing; Crop improvement; Future perspectives.
Introduction

Over one billion people in today's world are suffering from chronic malnutrition, while our agricultural production are declining at the same time, compounded by the loss of biodiversity and the growing challenges of climate change. With the global population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, contemporary agriculture will face huge challenges, requiring higher yields and improved quality crops, and requiring less inputs [1-3]. While conventional breeding is presently the most commonly used approach to plant improvement, it is labor intensive and typically takes many years to advance from the initial stages of sampling phenotypes and genotypes to the first crosses into industrial varieties.

The food industry has a 2050 time limit for developing and expanding the food supply chain in order to support the growing population in the world. Progress is required for this reason through crops, livestock and microbes [4,5]. Researchers have been trying to take the steps needed to achieve this milestone since 2005, but efforts have failed. The food production sector is now in a position to make some of its most exciting developments since the Green Revolution with the advent of CRISPRs and CRISPR (Cas) proteins [4,6].

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Monday, 20 July 2020

Levosimendan and Acute Kidney Injury by Uğur Koca in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science and Research





Mini Review
Severe sepsis is one of the most common causes of death in intensive care units, while in the presence of septic shock, the mortality rate reaches approximately 70% despite the progress made in the care of critical patients [1]. The widespread inflammatory and procoagulant response caused by sepsis leads to diffuse endothelial dysfunction, endovascular damage, and eventually multiple organ failure. Sepsis, ischemia reperfusion damage, toxic nephropathy, hypovolemia and urinary system obstruction can cause acute renal failure (ARF). However, it was experimentally observed that medullary and cortical blood flow in septic ARF continued or even increased, and this was described as a completely different physiological event from ABY which was not due to sepsis [2].

Major systemic and local mediators, neutrophil-endothelial interactions, microvascular thromboses, renal hypoperfusion, and reperfusion damage have been blamed for the pathogenesis of acute renal failure. Norepinephrine, angiotensin II and vasopressin are important systemic mediators in sepsis. Local mediators, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or interleukin 1 (IL-1), adhesion molecules, oxygen free radicals, catalyzes the if A2(TXA2), prostaglandin E2(PGE2), leukotrienes, platelet-induced growth factor, endothelin, nitric oxide(no) and adenosine include [3]. Nearly half of patients with acute kidney damage (AKD) have sepsis, while in intensive care units, AKD is accompanied by more septic shock. Mortality is higher in patients with sepsis-induced AKD. Adequate fluid replacement, early renal replacement therapy are useful for patients, but there is no method to treat septic AKD [4].

If hypotension cannot be corrected despite fluid resuscitation in sepsis treatment, vasopressor therapy is recommended [5]. Dopamine and norepinephrine were the first vasopressors to be selected in the treatment of Sepsis and septic shock [6]. Levosimendan is a new inotropic and vasodilator agent that has been proven to be beneficial, especially in patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome. [7]. It opens ATP - sensitive potassium channels in vascular smooth novellas cells, causing arteriolar-venous dilation. This mechanism of action is responsible for coronary, pulmonary, renal and systemic vasodilation [8,9]. In addition to blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, new and specific methods such as cystatin c, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL)], IL-8, kidney damage molecule [Kidney Injury Molecule(KIM)]-1 have been introduced in recent years to show acute kidney damage [10].

Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin has been reported as the earliest and most reliable laboratory parameter showing renal ischemia or nephrotoxicity in humans, especially in kidney, lung, stomach and colon cells [11]. NGAL levels can be detected in both urine and plasma within 2-6 hours after AKD [12]. Law et al. [13] they showed that levosimendane reduces tubular necrosis and atrophy in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion damage. However, the study examining the effect of levosimendan on acute kidney damage in polymicrobial sepsis model induced by cecal ligation perforation method was not reached.

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Friday, 17 July 2020

Legal Problems in Normal Price A Commentary on the Judicial Decision No. 324/2019 Issued by the Civil Expanded Commission of the Federal Cassation Court – Iraq, December 23rd, 2019 by Bashar Adnan Malkawi in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science and Research





Introduction
The Extended Commission of the of the Federal Cassation Court issued its decision No. 324/2019 on December 23rd, 2019 about the action of normal price which concluded that “The majority of this Commission considers that the claimant’s action and the inheritance of their heirs to claim normal price is not based on a valid legal basis. Normal price in its content and truth is unspecified potential compensation resulting from the loss of the utility of real and one of its most important reasons is the act of constraint and one of its forms are aggression on the immovable of the others and the right to claim the normal price even it is a financial right.

However, the personal aspect of exercising or not exercising this right by the person who owns the immovable i.e. the claiming is initially relied upon on its existence and arise. Therefore, the owner’s option not to claim or not to establish normal price for his/her constrained immovable during his/her lifetime entails the non-entry of undefined potential compensation (which is a price such as the constrained real in the owner's inheritance after his death, where he/she refrained from claiming the normal price during his/her lifetime because it is not permissible to inherit the undefined eventual right of the heirs because it is linked fatefully to the owner personally, and his/her choice not to claim where the personal option is not inherited to heirs because the owner's (inherited) about the claim during his lifetime of the normal price is considered to be permissible, donation and acceptance made by him/her with satisfaction. This silence is considered judicial presumption that is irrebuttable and cannot be contrary proved, as inferred from it that deceased premises or donates to claim normal price because the judicial presumption is to proof of an unknown fact from a known fact, and because normal price is a potential compensation, time element forms and establish this right which is past. In addition to demanding it as a personal right by the owner during his lifetime. And because it is more likely that the deceased will not be required during his lifetime to normal price such his/her constrained immovable is considered donation or permission, and in both of these two assumptions, the deceased is not entitled to the normal price because he/she agreed that others possess hand immovables.

Because the claimants’ inherited during her lifetime did not claim normal price for her immovables, which was possessed by the defendant in addition to her job, thus she was satisfied not to claim normal price for the period claimed by the plaintiffs' heirs, so that their action of the normal price the inheritance of their inherited is not substantiated by the law and therefore, the action would be dismissed...”. This decision was passed by the majority and based on multiple conclusions including

        A.       Not prosecuting normal price of the constrained immovable is considered either permission or donation.

        B.       Claim for the normal price is a potential compensation right.

 I concluded from this introduction the following facts:

a)       This right is not inherited.
b)      The owner's silence to prosecute during his lifetime is acceptance and satisfaction of the reality of the situation.
c)       That there is no legal basis for the action of normal price by offering two elements, time which is the past and demand on justice.


These conclusions on which the majority of the distinguished members of the above commission have concluded that this silence is judicial presumption that is an irrebuttable and cannot be contrary proved which has led the commission to reach a decision to dismiss the action. And we find that we are faced with more than one legal question raised by this decision, including: is potential right no inherited? Does filing a lawsuit is deemed permission or donation? To discuss this decision, we will examine terms from the above conclusions which they are judicial presumption, action demand of normal price and to what extent a personal option can be inherited.

First: Judicial Presumption
The above decision states that “the judicial presumption is to proof of an unknown fact from a known fact”, and it considers silence as a judicial presumption that is irrebuttable and cannot be contrary proved. And therefore, we believe that the Iraqi Legislative Authority in the Law of Proof No. (107) of 1979 differentiates between legal presumption and judicial presumption where legal presumption is defined in article 98-I as “legislative authority inference of an uncertain fact from a certain fact”, while it defines the judicial presumption in article (102-I) it “the judge's inference of an uncertain fact from a certain fact in in prosecution actions”. In general, French Legislative Authority defines presumptions in article (1349) of the Civil Code as “presumption is findings that are obtained via using a known fact to conclude an unknown fact by law or by judge's discretion.”

Some jurists believe that the judicial presumptions are distinguished by its diversity and not being restricted, because it varies as much as the multiplicity of facts [1], and the indication of the certain facts on the uncertain facts is not binding for the judge, so the antagonist can present the judge those certain facts that he/she wants to make them the basis to inferring what he/she claims [2]. One of the jurists considers that the judge's job in inferring the judicial presumptions is a mental act in which he/she uses his intelligence and logic. He concludes that this job should depend on inference in order to establish certain facts [3].


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Monday, 13 July 2020

Does the Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) Vaccine Enhance One or More Specific Functions in Children and Can it Help against this Novel Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome? by Carl Dowling in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric science and Research


Introduction
On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organisation (WHO) was informed of a novel virus known as Covid-19. This virus originated from Wuhan, China, where it rapidly started to spread to different parts of the world and become a global pandemic. Covid-19 mainly affected elderly and vulnerable adults. However, In April 2020 children started to present with a rare dangerous reaction which was unknown to healthcare providers. The novel syndrome seen in children has now been named Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS). Some experts say that this new syndrome seen in children is related to Covid-19 and resembles Kawasaki Disease (KD) and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS). According to the Centers for Disease control and Prevention [1] it is recommended that all children receive two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. This editorial will be analysing key concepts from variable research collected through different studies, in order to gain a better understanding of the MMR Vaccine and if it has any benefit in a child’s immune response when fighting against this new novel PIMS.

What is Covid-19?

According to the WHO [2] Covid-19 is a viral infectious disease which causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Ferretti [3] states that the virus can be transmitted through exhaled droplets and contamination of surfaces. According to Singal [4] symptoms of Covid-19 include fever, sore throat, cough followed by breathing difficulties. Furthermore, Singal [4] explains that symptoms of Covid-19 in neonates, infants and children are significantly milder than they are in adults. Roser [5] states that as of May 14th 2020 there are (4,477,573) reported cases which includes (299,958) reported deaths, with 2.2% of those deaths being related to children aged 0-17 years of age. Verdoni [6] that in children, the respiratory involvement in Covid-19 takes on a more benign course. According to Mehta [7] stated that Covid-19 carried a 3.7% mortality rate compared to less than 1% mortality rate from influenza. Furthermore, Mehta [7] mentions that Covid-19ncan cause cytokine storms within the body, and that it is advantageous to identify and treat they hyper inflammation using existing approved therapies where possible, in order to reduce the rise in mortality.
What is Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome?

According to Herman [8] approximately a month after the first surge of Covid-19 cases in New York, where at that time at least 50 children developed a Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome, suggesting it is a post infectious immune response related to Covid-19. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control [1] stated that a total of 230 suspected cases of this novel PIMS associated with Covid-19 has been reported within Europe with ages ranging between 0-19 years of age. Riphaean [9] explains that symptoms of this PIMS in children include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, peripheral oedema, extremity pain, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiac problems. Verdoni [6] States that there is evidence which proposes that tissue damage from Covid-19 is mediated by the innate immunity, however, this novel PIMS causes a similar reaction when compared to Covid-19 as cytokine storms are caused from macrophage activation. According to Ford [10] these new cases of the novel PIMS have common overlapping features of TSS and KD. In Riphaean [9] study, 8 children were admitted into the Paediatric Intensive care Unit (PICU), none of them had any underlying health issues and all were tested negative for Covid-19, however, all children had known family exposure to Covid-19. 6 were of Afro-Caribbean descent and 5 were boys. Furthermore, in Riphaean [9] study, it mentions that the children were given intravenous (IV) Immunoglobulin 2g/kg in first 24 hours of arrival in PICU followed by aspirin if needed. Shekerdemian [11] conducted a study in Italy on this novel PIMS and found that children in group 2 were older than those who are typically seen with KD, had a higher rate of cardiac involvement and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Furthermore, Shekerdemian [11] states that all children made a full recovery, however, all patients received immunoglobulin, but 80% required further treatment with steroids.


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Monday, 6 July 2020

Acute Coronary Syndrome by Ugur Koca in Open Access Journal of Biogeneric Science and Research




summary
Cardiovascular events related to ischemic coronary diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. The most common of these diseases are in the diagnosis group called acute coronary syndromes (ACS). According to the 2012 data of the World Health Organization (WHO), Ischemic Heart Disease, stroke with 7.4 million people, and 6.7 million people and 3.1 people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Cardiac Troponins (cTn) are very sensitive and specific indicators of myocardial damage in cardiac markers.It is included in the group of Cardiac Troponins, Troponin T (cTnT) and Troponin I (cTnI). In ACS, increased cTn levels are important in terms of both prognosis and treatment. In international algorithms, they are accepted as standard markers in the diagnosis and treatment of ACS. In many studies, cTn elevation was found to have negative prognostic value in the short-term, with or without myocardial infarction (MI), in patients hospitalized in the hospital intensive care unit. However, the level of cTn in the blood can increase even due to ischemic coronary diseases and even for non-cardiac reasons. Acute Coronary Syndrome occurs as a result of impaired integrity of the atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary vessel. The clot formed on the plaque impairs various degrees of coronary blood flow. In addition to the clot, different degrees of coronary spasm may accompany the picture. As a result of these changes, acute elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina pectoris (Unstable Angina Pectoris, UAP) may occur in the clinic.

Keywords: Troponin; Heart failure; Unstable angina

Introduction
Cardiovascular events related to ischemic coronary diseases are the leading causes of death in the world [1]. Those who complain about ischemic coronary disease often apply to emergency departments for initial diagnosis and treatments. The most common of these diseases are in the diagnosis group called acute coronary syndromes (ACS) [2]. An approach principle consisting of clinical history, ECG and cardiac markers is used in the diagnosis of ACS's emergency department. Although the history and ECG elements of the clinical approach have the same characteristics since the past, cardiac markers have been frequently changed in recent years, and they continue to take place in diagnostic approaches by updating and updating them.

Among the cardiac markers, cardiac Troponins (cTn) are highly sensitive and specific indicators of myocardial damage. It is included in the group of Cardiac Troponins, Troponin T (cTnT) and Troponin I (cTnI). In ACS, increased cTn levels are important in terms of both prognosis and treatment [3]. In international algorithms, they are accepted as standard markers in the diagnosis and treatment of ACS [4,5]. In many studies, the height of cTn was found to have negative prognostic value in the short-term, with or without myocardial infarction (MI), in patients hospitalized in the hospital intensive care unit. However, the level of cTn in the blood can increase even without ischemic coronary diseases [6]. The number of clinical studies conducted on the increase of the level of cTn in the blood when it is not related to ischemic coronary diseases is low.



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